Tag Archive | treatment

CBD Oil – A Newbies Lesson in Review

Cannabidiol (CBD) works through a number of complex mechanisms. Studies have indicated that CBD has analgesic, anti-convulsant, anti-psychotic and neuroprotective effects. This means that sufferers of chronic pain, anxiety, nausea, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, schizophrenia, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, PTSD, alcoholism, epilepsy, strokes and cardiovascular disease have another aid in their corner.

CBD’s use to treat epilepsy has caused quite a stir among folks here recently. The video below brings hope to many people.

In short, unlike THC (9tetrahydrocannabinol), CBD does not bind to the CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors, which is why it does not produce THC-like psychedelic affects.

Here in the USA, the FDA has ruled CBD to be treated as a nutritional supplement. As such, all supplements are required to have at least a basic nutritional label on them. Along with nutritional information, labels also require a suggested serving size. Because all manufacturers are required to put some form of serving size on the label, it gets confusing when it comes to dosing. This is a huge disservice to anyone trying to figure out how much CBD to take. Most people read the label and figure whatever it says is how much they should take. This couldn’t be further from the truth. The servings chosen are either arbitrary or can be helpful to some degree, however not necessarily any indication of how much CBD you should take. For instance, on many brands, 10 drops is a serving size and how many milligrams of CBD will be indicated. This is because it is important to know how many milligrams of CBD you are taking. For instance, you determine that you need 10 milligrams of CBD. The label indicates 10 drops has 5mg of CBD. You would take 20 drops to get 10mg.

CONDITION 2 – 25 LBS. 26 – 45 LBS 46 – 85 LBS 86 – 150 LBS 151 – 210 LBS 241+ LBS
MILD 4.5mg 6 mg 9 mg 12 mg 18 mg 22.5 mg
MEDIUM 6 mg 9 mg 12 mg 15 mg 22.5 mg 30 mg
SEVERE 9 mg 12 mg 15 mg 18 mg 27 mg 45 mg

 

An effective dosage can range from as little as a few milligrams of CBD-enriched oil to a gram or more. Begin with a small dose and take a few small doses over the course of the day rather than one big dose. Use the same dose and ratio for several days. Note the effects and if necessary, adjust the ratio or amount. Cannabis compounds have biphasic properties, which mean that low and high doses of the same substance can produce opposite effects. Like alcohol, small doses tend to stimulate; large doses sedate. “Less is more” is often the case with respect to cannabis therapy.

For instance: I found the best dose for my 151-210 pound frame, treating anxiety (medium condition), would be about 20-25 mg a day. I break it up by taking about 10 mg in the morning and the 10-15 mg balance at night. The lower dose in the morning is treated like coffee by my body, and the larger dose at night works like warm milk… allowing me a great night’s sleep.

Things to look for when choosing a CBD oil:

  • Cannabis Not Industrial Hemp: Compared to whole plant cannabis, hemp is typically low in cannabinoid content. A huge amount of hemp is required to extract a small amount of CBD, raising the risk of contaminants because hemp is a bioaccumulator, meaning it draws toxins from the soil. The balanced profile of whole plant cannabis enhances the therapeutic benefits of the CBD and THC.
  • How it’s made: a 10% CBD oil that has been CO2 extracted and processed without heat so it maintains a full cannabinoid and terpene profile, is better than a 50% oil cheaply extracted with butane and heated excessively so it has no more terpenes left. Also, many products are made with isolate, which is 99%. Very high %, but it is an isolate so it’s missing the rest of the “whole plant” compounds and therefore, likely to be limited in effects.
  • Easy to Read Labels: Look for clear labels showing the quantity, ratio of CBD, THC per dose (if applicable), a manufacturing date and lastly, a batch number.
  • Lab Testing: Look for products that are tested for consistency, verified as free of mold, pesticides, bacteria, solvent residues and other contaminants.
  • Quality Ingredients: Select products with quality ingredients. No corn syrup, GMOs, trans fats, and artificial additives.
  • CBD and THC-Rich Products: For maximum therapeutic impact, (If living in a Marijuana legal state) choose products that include CBD and THC, the main psychoactive component of cannabis. CBD and THC enhance each other’s therapeutic benefits, that’s why Mother Nature put them together 😉
  • Safe Extraction: Avoid products extracted with toxic solvents like BHO (Butane honey oil), propane, hexane or other hydrocarbons. Solvent residues are especially dangerous for immune-compromised patients. Look for products that use a safer method of extraction like supercritical CO2.

Here are some of the brands I tried and my notes. In the end, Diamond CBD will be getting my business.

PRODUCT PRICE SIZE MG TASTE RATING
Honey B $30.00 1 oz / 30 ml 100 mg Berry My starter bottle. I really liked the mild taste. Only 3 flavors.
Tasty Drops $60.00 1 oz / 30ml 300 mg Berry Thick black oil. Did not like the thick ‘hemp’ taste.
American Shaman $60.00 .5 oz / 15ml 300 mg Grape Strong hemp flavor, but grape covered well.
Pure Science Lab $60.00 .5 oz / 15ml 400 mg Vanilla Horrible taste. Lingered for hours. Required refrigeration.
Diamond CBD $70.00 .5 oz / 15ml 350 mg Cherry Best tasting so far. Nice dropper. Have different flavors on order.

© Ilex ~ Midwestern Plant Girl

Monday Memories 7-25-2016

It’s actually been a pretty weird year for plant pests this year. Many things that were plentiful last year, haven’t been seen, and many things I’ve never seen before are showing up like they’ve been here all the time. This teaches me that you can take nothing for granted in this world. The life span of a human is very short compared to the life span of the earth. Although we may say, “I’ve not seen that since I was knee-high to a grasshopper”, the phenomenon may have been taking place since the dawn of time. Humans tend to think of things in our lifetime, when we really have to broaden our outlook to include many generations.

Ilex vs. Rabbitsimage

Rabbit Deterrents:
•These trees have chicken fencing around them, but it’s right against the bark. It needs to be away (1 foot) from the trunk and at least 6 inches underground, as best as possible.
•There are commercial repellants to use, but need to be reapplied often & don’t generally work according to the experts.
•Spread blood meal, cayenne pepper, manure or dog or human hair around plants.
•Spray plants with a solution of hot pepper sauce and water or vinegar. Reapply the solution after each rain. This solution can be rinsed off of vegetables after harvest and will not affect the taste.
•Use a foul-tasting spray deterrent that contains bitrex. Do not use bitrex sprays on vegetable plants because it will affect the taste of the produce.
•The last solution is a fine rabbit stew. Mmm.

Ilex vs. Snails & Slugs

Euchemotrema hubrichtiPreventing damage should start from last year’s observations, if possible. Most likely, if you had them last year in your garden they will be back.
Clear leaf litter from around susceptible plants. Don’t give them a place to hide.
Make a barrier of eggshells, twigs, or ashes around the plants as they don’t like to crawl over rough or sharp material. Copper wire or pipe is also effective, relying on the premise that the copper delivers an electric shock to them.
Provide a halved orange upside down as bait at night, and remove the takers the next morning.
Use a shallow lid buried in the ground and fill with beer or lemonade. Slugs and snails cannot resist a free drink, and will come and drown in the pool.
For smaller plants, make a cloche by cutting the bottom off a plastic bottle, bury slightly, and remove the lid for ventilation.
Encourage frogs and birds to your garden as they can’t resist a meal of escargot!

Ilex VS Lawn Fungus

disease Triangle

Changing your lawn care habits might reduce your risk of fungi problems. A healthy lawn has a really good chance of pulling through a fungal infection, but that is up to you!

  • Water your grass regularly, but don’t water it too much because waterlogged grass invites fungi. Don’t set your irrigation and not monitor it.
  • Dry grass can also makes your lawn more susceptible.
  • A nitrogen-based fertilizer applied annually (in the fall) supplies your grass with the nutrients it needs to flourish.
  • When you mow, don’t remove more than one-third of the length of the blades of grass at a time. A healthy length for grass (from the thatchline) is 3 inches tall.

I’ve noticed many different types of fungus coming out in droves because of our weather this season. Some are fairly rare and hard to treat. I wish we could get over the ‘Perfect Lawn’ mentality and all just enjoy the clovers and other blooming weeds. =-)

© Ilex ~ Midwestern Plant Girl

Ilex VS Grubs in the Lawn

Lawns in the Midwest often are subject to severe injury by the larval stages (grubs) of various species of scarab beetles. Japanese beetles and May/June beetles are the predominant damaging white grub species found within home lawns. Several other white grub species including: European chafer, Asiatic garden beetle, green June beetle, masked chafer grubs, and Oriental beetle are sporadically found in lawns and may cause some damage.

Japanese beetles cause other types of damage and require different types of controls. Visit Ilex VS Japanese Beetles for more information on how to battle them.

GRUB DESCRIPTION:

whitegrubs

Typical white grub of the genus Phyllophaga. Photograph by John L. Capinera, University of Florida.

Many white grubs look similar to each other but vary in size. Mature grubs range in size from 3/8” inch – 2″ inches. Grubs are C-shaped and have three pair of thoracic legs (ALIENS!!!). The head is dark, but the body is usually creamy white in color. White grub species identification is not necessary because the cultural control practices are similar. The arrangement of hairs and spines on the posterior end of the grub, called the raster, is a distinguishing feature between species, if identification is warranted.

DAMAGE SYMPTOMS:

Lawn Damage by Grubs

Lawn Damage by Grubs

Damage via furries digging for grubs.

Damage via furries digging for grubs.

Grubs chew off grass roots and reduce the ability of the lawn to take up water. During the hot, dry weather of late summer, large dead patches of lawn will begin to develop. Irrigated lawns may not show the damage as quickly, because the lawn is being watered regularly. Sometimes the damage can get farther along before it is noticed in an irrigated lawn compared to a non-irrigated lawn. The sod in those dead patches can be quite easily rolled up like carpet to reveal the grubs beneath, because the grubs have chewed through all the roots. This is also the time when skunks, starlings, moles, shrews, voles and other furries start to forage for their favorite, plump snacks, which causes digging in the lawn.

GRUB FACTS:

I’ve spoken to my spray technician about what to expect this year for grub damage. She feels that the severe cold that we experienced will not make much impact on the populations of beetles this year. The grubs here can generally be put into two categories, the May/June Beetles (#1) and the Japanese beetle (#2) grubs.

The #1 grubs are generally bigger and closer to the surface. These grubs are also mostly on a 3 year cycle, living 2 years underground. Many of these beetles may not have made it, but they are also not the ones that cause a bunch of damage to the lawn as they emerge sooner, so less feeding during the summer and the lawn has had time to recover. Although, these being closer to the surface and larger makes them attractive to wildlife, who will dig feverously to get to the squishy snacks. The related thought to this, is that with the harsh winter we had, many of the furries most likely did not make it through the winter.

Regarding the severity of our winter. Yes, we did see temperatures of -16F here, but that was aboveground, air temperature. We also had a bunch of snow that does act as an insulator. Therefore, although the freeze line may have been deeper, it is still just a freeze line, no colder than freezing, just deeper.

The Japanese beetle grubs (#2) will go as deep as necessary to avoid the freeze. These emerge later in the season, thus will cause more damage as the feeding is continuing into the drier, summer months and the grass cannot keep up with lack of roots and it’s water needs.

MANAGEMENT:

  • Allowing your lawn to go dormant during the dry summer months can help by not moving the eggs of the beetles into the lawn and they will dry-out on top of the lawn where they were laid.
  • The two nematodes that are most effective against Japanese beetle grubs are Steinernema glaseri and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The latter is commercially available.
  • Apply Milky Spore to your lawn area only if you’ve seen grub activity in your lawn during the spring. Many experts do question it’s effectiveness, though.
  • Make your yard attractive to birds that might eat them. Starlings and robins love to get them when they are freshly hatched.
  • Attract the solitary fly (Istocheta aldrichii) and the parasitic wasp (Tiphia vernalis) that lays its eggs inside the adult beetles (fly) or the grubs (wasp). Adult wasps feed almost exclusively on the honeydew of aphids associated with the leaves of maple, cherry, and elm trees and peonies. (Hmmm, so aphids or grubs… which pest is worse!!)
wasp

Parasitic wasp (Tiphia vernalis)

  • Unfortunately, if your lawn has been severely attacked, pesticides may be your only recourse. Responsible IPM methods can be employed to reduce the chemical impacts to the environment.

Prevention: An ounce of it…

Products containing imidacloprid, thiamethoxam or chlorantraniloprole, are preventive insecticides that work well on newly hatched grubs present in July, but do not for large grubs found from September to May. Remember, this will prevent the next generation of grubs from infecting your lawn; it has no effect on the ones that are currently maturing. There are different recommended timings for application depending on the active ingredient. Although the bag often states to apply anytime from May to Aug 15, it is highly recommended that products containing imidacloprid or thiamethoxam be applied and irrigated into the soil in June. Best to apply before a storm as it works best when watered in. Preventive products containing imidacloprid or thiamethoxam will consistently give 75%-100% reduction of grubs if they are applied in June or July.

Curative treatments:

There are two insecticides, carbaryl and trichlorfon, that are considered curative treatments. These kill all life stages of the of #2 type grubs, but do nothing to #1 type grubs. These two insecticides are the only choices available if high numbers of grubs are found in the fall after the middle of September and in the spring before early-May. They are not as effective as the preventive compounds in reducing grub numbers because they have a less active time in the soil and timing of the application is critical. Consider carefully whether it would be best to wait and apply a preventive next spring. If the need should arise to use a curative compound, make sure to keep the infested lawn watered regularly and fertilized. It is recommended to treat the area again with a preventive application the next summer or grubs will likely reoccur.

 

Ilex vs The Japanese Beetle

Some woodies seem to attract the Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) like a tween to Justin Beiber, whereas others don’t seem to exist to them. Why is that? Some scientists have experimented as to just what makes a Japanese Beetle want to eat a plant… or not.

Things that seem to attract them are:jap beetles

  • Lightly pubescent leaves
  • Red or burgundy leaves
  • Light colored roses

They seem to dislike:

  • Heavy pubescent leaves
  • Waxy, or glossy leaves
  • Darker colored roses

The following information should not be taken to the bank, but used as a guide to choose better (or try to) planting options. The following plants seem to have a neon sign hanging in their branches saying, “EAT ME”:

  • Acer palmatum – Japanese maple
  • Acer platanoides – Norway maple
  • Betula populifolia – Gray birch
  • Clethra alnifolia Summersweet – clethra
  • Castanea dentate – American chestnut
  • Aesculus hippocastanum – Horsechestnut
  • Juglans nigra – Black walnut
  • Sassafras albidum – Common sassafras
  • Lagerstroemia – Crapemyrtle
  • Malus baccata-  ‘Liset’ ‘Royalty’
  • Platanus × acerifolia – London planetree
  • Prunus × cistena Purpleleaf – sandcherry
  • Prunus sargentii – Sargent cherry
  • Prunus serotina – Black cherry
  • Prunus serrulata ‘Mt. Fuji’ – Mt. Fuji Oriental cherry
  • Prunus subhirtella ‘Autumnalis Rosea’
  • Prunus × incamp ‘Okame’  – Okame cherry
  • Rosa spp. and hybrids Roses
  • Sorbus Americana – American mountain ash
  • Ulmus Americana – American elm
  • Ulmus procera – English elm
  • Tilia cordata – ‘Greenspire’ and ‘Olympic’

Control on a larger specimen is very difficult. It is better to take a few of the control options and work a plan out for the season. If one type of control doesn’t seem to work switch gears, and try another. You may need an application of a systemic insecticide like imidacloprid by a licensed arborist.

Pheromone beetle traps are a misconception. Yes, the bag gets full, but the beetles aren’t great fliers, and most of them will not find the trap. This trap now becomes an attractant for them to your area.

Try these IPM (Integrated pest management) options & if one doesn’t work, move on to another:

  • Make sure the plant is in great health.
  • In the morning, place a sheet under tree and shake the beetles off.
  • Use a hose end sprayer to apply Neem (an organic pesticide) to branches it reaches when you see the beetles.
  • The two nematodes that are most effective against Japanese beetle grubs are Steinernema glaseri and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The latter is commercially available.
  • Apply Milky Spore to your lawn area only if you’ve seen grub activity in your lawn during the spring. Many experts do question it’s effectiveness, though.
  • Make your yard attractive to birds that might eat them.
  • Attract the solitary fly (Istocheta aldrichii) and the parasitic wasp (Tiphia vernalis) that lays its eggs inside the adult beetles (fly) or the grubs (wasp). Adult wasps feed almost exclusively on the honeydew of aphids associated with the leaves of maple, cherry, and elm trees and peonies.

© Ilex Farrell – Midwestern Plant Girl

Ilex VS Pine Bark Borer

I had noticed that a couple pines and spruce at work were starting to turn brown in December. They are in a large row on the property line screening us from the funeral home next door. I couldn’t get out to see them earlier, as the snow drifts by them were 3 feet high. Now that finally, all the snow has melted, I took the time to investigate.

image

Pine bark borer on pine.

As a trained arborist, I learned to assess trees from a distance, then move in for the close up.  There are many symptoms that look the same for many different problems. My non-arborist coworker was confident that it was only a lack of water causing the browning of the needles. Nope. With a bit more patience and observation, he too could have seen the signs and potentially diagnosed the problem correctly.
First, let me discuss the difference between symptoms and signs.
Symptoms; An attribute that the disease or pest causes, but is not the disease or pest directly. Needles or leaves turning yellow or brown, leaves wilting, stunted growth, and die-back are all symptoms.
Signs; Is direct evidence or seeing the disease or pest itself. Signs include; fruiting bodies of fungus, chewed leaves or twigs, cankers, galls, and holes in the trunk or branches are just a few.
I was seeing the symptom of browning needles on the trees, but upon closer inspection of the trunks,noticed the signs of pine bark borer in the small holes they left.
The specific symptoms for this pest in the evergreen (although the bug is called pine bark beetle, it does also attack spruce) is that the tree browns from the top down. Many other problem start this way also, but many problems don’t, so I was able to eliminate a good 50% of possible diagnosis.

image

The borer’s holes are the size of a pencil lead and are randomly placed on the trunk.

Upon seeing the multiple small holes in the truck, I didn’t need to go any further with my observations.
Pine bark borer is a small beetle that, in it’s larvae stage, lives just under the bark in evergreens during the winter. It bores tunnels, eating it’s way through the important water transportation system of the tree. Eventually, they damage it to the point the trees can’t get water to it’s needles and it will die. A badly infested tree can not be saved, sadly, even a mildly infested one is difficult to save.
What needs to be done now is remove the trees that have the borer before mid-April. That is the time when the mature beetles come out of the tree and are able to fly to nearby pines and spruces. This adult stage lasts from mid-April through September. If a tree is found with this pest during this window, it should be removed and destroyed (burned, buried or chipped) ASAP.
Generally, this pest only is able to attack stressed trees, and with the drought we had last year, most trees are at least mildly stressed. With that in mind, it is important to try to prevent the spread of the pest to the nearby trees.
In general, the consensus on treatment is to water your trees! It’s that simple. Long story short, think of a hose under high pressure. If you were trying to push something into it, the pressure would push the object out. The theory works for trees, if the tree is full of water, the borers wouldn’t be able to penetrate the bark. If the tree is water-stressed and doesn’t have the pressure to keep the beetles out, you’ll have another infected tree.

Enjoy the day & keep on planting!
Ilex

Poison Ivy – Leaves of Three, Let Them Be – Leaves of Five, Let Them Thrive!!

Leaves of three, let them be… Leaves of five, let them thrive!

flowering poison ivy

Blooming Poison Ivy

parthenocissus quinquefolia

Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)

Although us horticulturist know better.. they are really leaflets, as it is a compound leaf. I don’t want to mess with the original poetry, so whatever keeps you away from this itchy stuff, I’ll continue to chant!

Arisaema atrorubens

Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema atrorubens)

Many of you may not have heard the last part of this saying, but it is to prevent the beautiful, native vine, Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) from being lumped in with poison ivy. They both also have beautiful red, fall coloring.

wpid-20140601_132914_richtonehdr.jpg

Box elder (Acer negundo)

I’ll discuss some of the look alikes and general areas it can be found. This guide will hopefully help you avoid this itchy plant!

Poor Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema atrorubens)… He likes to grow in all the same areas poison ivy grows. Later on after he blooms, he doesn’t resemble it as much.

Trillium does have three leaves and blooms about the same time as poison ivy, although most seasoned hikers can distinguish it. This one only fools the newbies!

trillium

Trillium sessile

The winning doppelganger comes in the form of a box elder (Acer negundo). This weed tree is very prolific and seedlings sprout up very easily. When they are seedlings, they have a striking resemblance to the poison ivy leaf, without the red stem tho, that’s the tell. As they grow, they develop another set of leaves (leaflets) which would bring the total to 5 leaflets, thus lighting the way to pull this weed. Ok, maybe we do need to work on that poem….

Where To Find It:

Poison ivy is found in our Midwestern forests & natural areas. It can be a small shrub, ground cover, but mostly seen here as a vine, in shadier areas, growing on the north side of trees. It likes wetter areas, but can tolerate drier soils.

Poison ivy’s leaf shapes vary from smooth and round, to narrow and sharp, with any number of lobes. Lobes can be sharp or rounded. Lobes may be symmetric or asymmetric on the same leaf, or within the same group of leaves. The leaves are often a reddish or brownish color when they are very young and in fall they turn yellow/red like other fall foliage. The stem in the location of the three leaves tends to be redder. Arisaema atrorubens

Why You Itch:

blooming poison ivy

Blooming Poison Ivy

Poison ivy’s main component that causes the skin irritation is Urushiol. It is an oily resin that is found on the stems and leaves of poison ivy and several other related species. It causes contact dermatitis — an immune-mediated skin inflammation. This oily ingredient can even cause irritation during the winter!

Ironically, animals are immune to the oils, deer feed on the leaves and birds use the vine as living spaces along with eating the berries in fall. They do not have any reactions to the oily resin, contrary to humans. However, the oils can be transferred from your dog to your hands if you pet them.

Eh Gads, I’m Up To My Elbows! Now What?

As soon as you notice your mistake… TAKE ACTION! Speed is of the essence. The less oils you can have soak into your skin, the better.

Many washes are available. These should be brought with you hiking. Zanfel has worked great for our crews. The wash works by surrounding urushiol and bonding with it, enabling it to be rinsed away with water.

jewel weed

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)

Another folk remedy is to smash the stems of Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) and apply to skin. Luckily, they tend to grow near each other!

Other methods of relief.

  • Cool colloidal oatmeal baths
  • Cold, wet compresses that can be applied for 15 to 30 minutes a few times each day
  • Anti-itch creams, such as Calamine Lotion, Caladryl Clear Topical Analgesic Skin Lotion, or Aveeno Anti-Itch Cream with Natural Colloidal Oatmeal, zinc oxide,
  • Oral antihistamines such as Atarax (hydroxyzine), Benadryl or prescription strength.
  • Oral steroids, such as Orapred or Prednisone.
  • Topical steroid creams.
  • A steroid shot, Kenalog (triamcinolone acetonide)

Without further adieu, here is my Poison Ivy Gallery:

flowering ivy

Blooming poison ivy

Growing up a tree trunk.

Growing up a tree trunk.

Close - up.

Close – up.

https://midwesternplants.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/wpid-20130829_0900231.jpg

Poison ivy berries

fall

Fall color

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©Ilex ~ Midwestern Plant Girl